The Miracle Of Mi'raj
The miracle of Mi‘râj took place a year before the Hijrah, on the 27th night of Rajab al-Sharîf. This incident was mentioned in the first Âyah of Sûrah al-Isrâ. If a person denies that Rasûlullâh (sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam) travelled from Masjid al-Harâm to Bayt al-Maqdis in a short time, he leaves the fold of Islam. If he denies Nabî Sallallâhu Alayhi Wa Sallam’s ascension to heavens, he becomes a person of Ahl al-Bid‘ah (corrupt in Aqîdah). This is because there is no limit to the power of Allâh Azza Wa Jalla.
On that night, Jibrâîl (alayhis salâm) took Nabî (sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam) from the room he stayed in, (the house of Umm-Hânî [radiyallâhu anhâ]) and took him to the Holy Ka‘bah, opened his chest and washed his heart. Then he took him to Bayt al-Maqdis by mounting him on Buraq, a heavenly horse. He saw the prophets and angels there. He led them in Salâh, and then from the big rock at Masjid al-Aqsâ he mounted Buraq, or on the wings of Jibrâil (alayhis salâm) ascended into the heavens.
In the first heaven, he met Âdam (alayhis salâm), in the second Yahyâ and Isâ (alayhimus salâm), in the third Yûsuf (alayhis salâm), in the fourth Idrîs (alayhis salâm), in the fifth Hârûn (alayhis salâm), in the sixth Mûsâ (alayhis salâm) and in the seventh, he met Ibrâhîm (alayhis salâm). After greeting and conversing with them, he reached Sidrah al-Muntaha. He was shown Bayt al-Ma‘mûr, Kawthar, and the river of Rahmah.
From there, he mounted on ‘Raf-Raf’ and reached the presence of Allâh Ta‘âlâ (though not in the sense of physical direction in physical terms). When he said, “Attahiyyâtu lillâhi wassalawâtu wattayyibâtu” Allâh reciprocated with the words “Assalâmu ‘alayka ayyuhannabiyyu wa rahmatullâhi wa barakâtuhu”. Rasûlullâh (sallallâhu alayhi wa sallam) continued saying “Assalâmu ‘alaynâ wa ‘alâ ‘ibâdillâhis sâlihîn.” And the angels joined saying “ash-hadu allâ ilâha illallâhu wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan ‘abduhû wa Rasûluhu.”
While he was initially commanded with fifty times daily Salâh, after going back and forth to Allâh Ta‘âlâ and asking Him to reduce it, it was reduced to five times. On his way back, he observed the ranks and blessings in Jannah, and the pits and punishments in Jahannam.
When he set off towards Makkah after returning to Bayt al-Maqdis, he saw the caravan of Quraysh. The following Fajr, he informed the people about his experience. Many did not believe him. Even some Muslims became disbelievers after hearing him. Some asked him questions about Bayt al-Maqdis and their caravans. Rasûlullâh (sallalâhu alayhi wa sallam) answered all of them one by one. Upon this, some professed their faith while others rejected.
(Tafsîr al-Mawâkib, Fazilet Publishing)