Sadaqah Al Fitr (Zakat Al Fitr)
Sadaqah Al-Fitr is a Wajib (required) charity which is given by Muslims who have Nisab (80.18 gr gold or its equivalent in cash or trade goods) amount of wealth after providing for his basic necessities and who reached the end of Ramadan Sharif. It is also Wajib upon those who fail to fast in Ramadan Sharif because of a sickness; travelling in Ramadan Sharif or old age.
Sadaqah Al-Fitr is a Wajib deed, which is mentioned in Ahadith Sharif (sayings) of the Prophet of Allah Sallâllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam. It was prescribed before Zakat/Zakah, which was the same year when fast was prescribed.
It is a means for the acceptance of fast and it provides safety from the pangs and pains of death and torments of the grave. On the other hand, it is a help to provide for the necessities of the poor so that they enjoy the Eid.
This charity becomes Wajib as the time of Fajr Salah begins, on the first day of Shawwal. However, it is Mandub (praiseworthy) to give it earlier than Eid Salah so that the poor can meet their necessities with it.
Since Sadaqah Al- Fitr becomes Wajib at Fajr time on the first day of Shawwal Sharif, if a child is born before Fajr that day, it becomes Wajib to give Sadaqah Al- Fitr for that child as well. Nevertheless, if the child is born after that time, it is not Wajib.
Each adult Muslim should pay the Sadaqah Al-Fitr for themselves. If one has children who have not reached the age of puberty, they have to give Sadaqah Al-Fitr on their behalf as well. However, it is not Wajib for a father to give Sadaqah Al-Fitr for his Baligh (mature) or Shari’ rich children.
The father can pay the Sadaqah Al- Fitr on behalf of his Baligh (mature) children after taking their consent. A person can pay the Fitrah of his wife and children without their consent if they are under his care, since customarily he has the permission to do so.
A person cannot give his Fitrah to his poor wife, mother, father, grandfather, grandmother, children or grandchildren.
It is Makruh (disliked) to give the Fitrah after the ‘Eid Salah. The recommended way is to discharge it before the ‘Eid Salah.
Rasûlullâh Sallâllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam said: “(Fast in) The month of Ramadhan is suspended between earth and heaven. It does not ascend to Allah Ta‘âlâ further (it is not accepted) until Sadaqah Al-Fitr is paid.” (Munâwî, Faydh Al-Qadîr)