The Prophet MUHAMMED
CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH
The Messenger of Allah was born 570 in Mecca. His father Abdullah died shortly before his birth. Muhammed (saw) was educated in his first years
by his dairy mother Halima from the tribe of Banu Sa'ad. At the age of six, he was defeated by the loss of his mother Amina.
He then came to the care of his grandfather Abdulmuttalib. When the latter died, his son Abu Talib took over the education of the growing child.
MUHAMMED EL EMIN (SAW)
The Messenger of Allah was known in the pre-Islamic period among the Arabs with the property of Amin, the Sincere, the Reliable. He was asked for advice in disputes.
In the restoration of the Kaaba,
he was the one who placed the black stone in its place and thus settled a quarrel between the Meccan tribes.
MARRIAGE WITH HADICE
At 25, Muhammed (sas) married the forty-year-old Hadice. From this marriage two boys (Kasim, Ibrahim) and four daughters (Zainab, Rukiyya, Ummu Gülsüm and Fatima (ra)) emerged.
After her death, the Messenger of Allah married other women.
CALLING AS MESSENGER OF ALLAH
Occasionally the Messenger of Allah withdrew to Hira. When he was 40 years old, he once again sought the place of solitude and silence.
This time he had a special experience. The messenger of Allah saw an angel. The angel asked him to read. But the messenger did not know what to read.
Then the angel grabbed him and pressed his chest, and began to read aloud. At the same time, the following verses passed over the lips of the ambassador:
In the name of your Lord, Who created
He created man from a clot of blood
Read, then, your Lord is all-merciful.
He who taught with the writing-tube taught man,
Which he did not know.
Surat al Alaq (96): 1-4
"O Muhammad, I am the Archangel Jabrail, and You are Rasulullah, the Messenger of Allah." Thus the messenger began to proclaim the divine message to his relatives and the Meccans.
But the new message was very difficult to accept for the ruling class of Meccans and led to oppression and reprisals by the new Muslim community.
Thus, in 622 CE, the emissary emigrated from his birthplace Mecca to Yathrib, which later became known as Medina (City of the Messenger).
The migration from Mecca to Madina in the year 622 has entered the history as Hijrah and was declared the beginning of the Islamic time account.
In Medina he concluded the first city contract with the Medinians, in which mutual solidarity and protection were agreed with the Medinensian tribes and other religious communities.
In 632 AD he died and was buried in his mosque at Medina.
THE ISLAMIC TIME CALCULATION ACCORDING TO THE HIJI CALENDAR
The Hijri calendar begins with the migration (Hijrah) of the Messenger Muhammed (as) from his birthplace Mecca to Medina in 622 AD.
It has twelve months and is eleven days shorter than a normal year. As a result, Islamic ceremonies, which are fixed according to the calendar of the moon,
move eleven days a year, as measured by the solar calendar. A moon month has 29 to 30 days and is initiated with the sighting of the crescent moon (Hilal).
THE HIJRI MONTHS
3) Rabi' al-awwal
4) Rabi' al-thani
5) Jumada al-awwal
6) Jumada al-thani
11) Dhu al-Qi'dah
12) Dhu al-Hijjah